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Indian Ports Sector handles around 95 percent of India’s trading is by volume and 70 per cent by value is done by maritime transport. India has 12 major ports and 187 non-major ports. Cargo traffic, which is recorded at 1.052 million metric tonnes (MMT) in 2015, is expected to reach 1,758 (MMT) by 2017. The Indian ports and shipping industry plays a vital role in sustaining the growth in the country’s trade and commerce. India is the sixteenth largest maritime country in the world, with a coastline of about 7,517 km.

The handling capacity of major ports in India is sufficient to match the trade demand. The capacity utilization for the year 2014-2015 was around 66 percent. Currently there are 44 ongoing projects undertaken at major ports in India.

Ports on Western Coast

Ports on Eastern Coast

Kandla (Formed after Karachi given to Pakistan, child of partition)

Kolkata-Haldia (Riverine port, Indian Coast guard base)

Mumbai India’s Biggest & busiest

Paradip (exports raw iron to Japan)

Jawaharlal Nehru/Nhava Sheva (Largest container Port)

Vishakhapatnam (Oldest shipyard & natural harbor)

Marmugao (Natural Harbour)

Chennai (Oldest & artificial harbour)

Manglore/Panambur (Kudremukh iron-ore exports)

Ennore (most modern-in private hands)

Cochin (Natural Harbour)

Tuticorin (Southernmost& artificial deep sea harbour)

Cargo handling at Indian Ports has matured over time. The development of non-major ports due to growing private sector participation has led to a shift of cargo traffic from major ports that operate at above-optimum capacity, to the non-major ports. There has been an uneven development of port infrastructure across the country. As the addition of handling capacity has gradually outpaced the cargo traffic at ports, capacity utilization at the major ports has decreased.

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